Written ca. 350 B.C.
Translated by W. D. Ross
Book V - Part 14
"'Quality' means (1) the differentia of the essence, e.g. man is an
animal of a certain quality because he is two-footed, and the horse is
so because it is four-footed; and a circle is a figure of particular
quality because it is without angles,-which shows that the essential
differentia is a quality.-This, then, is one meaning of quality-the
differentia of the essence, but (2) there is another sense in which it
applies to the unmovable objects of mathematics, the sense in which the
numbers have a certain quality, e.g. the composite numbers which are not
in one dimension only, but of which the plane and the solid are copies
(these are those which have two or three factors); and in general that
which exists in the essence of numbers besides quantity is quality; for
the essence of each is what it is once, e.g. that of is not what it is
twice or thrice, but what it is once; for 6 is once 6.
"(3) All the modifications of substances that move (e.g. heat and cold,
whiteness and blackness, heaviness and lightness, and the others of the
sort) in virtue of which, when they change, bodies are said to alter.
(4) Quality in respect of virtue and vice, and in general, of evil and
"Quality, then, seems to have practically two meanings, and one of these
is the more proper. The primary quality is the differentia of the
essence, and of this the quality in numbers is a part; for it is a
differentia of essences, but either not of things that move or not of
them qua moving. Secondly, there are the modifications of things that
move, qua moving, and the differentiae of movements. Virtue and vice
fall among these modifications; for they indicate differentiae of the
movement or activity, according to which the things in motion act or are
acted on well or badly; for that which can be moved or act in one way is
good, and that which can do so in another--the contrary--way is vicious.
Good and evil indicate quality especially in living things, and among
these especially in those which have purpose.